The book is written in German. A new philosophy of volition is proposed. In part one a transdisciplinary model of volition is introduced based on five elementary volitive processes. These are the volition to act; the volition to self-instrumentalize;the volition to program intentions; the volition to generate realities; and the volition to permanent existence. The interactions of these processes of volition may generate I-conscious volition. After the description of the volitive processes the model is discussed and elaborated in the perspectives of philosophical doctrines of Western philosophy of volition, brain research, quantum mechanics and techniques, especially with regard to humanoid robots. In part two mental disorders are characterized as passions of will. Imbalances of information processing in tripartite synapses and their networks may be responsible for dysfunctions of volitive processes in the brain. In depression the volition to act is constrained by hyperintentional programs that are non-feasible in the environment. In mania volitive processes are totally oriented on events in the environment without any goal-directed programming. Dysfunctions of volitive processes in schizophrenia are fundamentally caused by severe impairments of self-instrumentalization. The philosophical interpretation of depression, mania and schizophrenia focuses on the reality-experience of the patients. It is suggested that patients suffering from mental or affective disorders are deep in their soul driven by a desire to permanence or immortality. The passion of volition by the philosophers Auguste Comte and Friedrich Nietsche is briefly discussed. Finally, the creative graphic work of a patient with schizophrenia is interpreted as a hidden striving for the permanent. One of the authors studies on robotics „Robots with consciousness: creating a third nature“ (Int. J. of Machine Consciousness 5, 179-193, 2013) is attached.